Scaphoid abdomen, also known as the navicular abdomen, is caused when anterior abdominal wall forms a concave like structure and abdomen seems sucked inside. This disease is most prevalent in young people in third world countries. There are many causes of Scaphoid Abdomen; most common are malnutrition and fatal diseases
Causes of Scaphoid Abdomen:
To maintain a healthy body, nutritive diet is required. In the absence of healthy diet, a person becomes prone to malnourishment which reduces abdominal fat and shortens muscles. Overall weight if body also reduces and other limbs become thinner. Malnutrition also results in stunting and pitting enema of other limbs as well. Nutritional deficiencies dissolve fats and lipids and contouring the abdominal wall. Countries like Ethiopia record large percentage of Scaphoid Abdomen caused as a result of malnutrition.
Patients suffering from cancer are prone to develop Scaphoid Abdomen. When cancer develops in any organ of the body, cells of that organ undergo rapid growth forming a tumour-like structure. That tumor draws in all the nutrition and energy from other cells in the body. Lack of nourishment takes place due to which fats are dissolved and length of muscles shortens. This results in massive weight loss and consequently, this disease occurs.
Anorexia Nervosa, or simply Anorexia, is a psychological eating disorder characterized by strong desire to be thin. People suffering from anorexia always consider themselves overweight and watch the intake of food, restricting it to very fewer amounts. This results in malnutrition and malnourishment. Such patients have low body mass index which makes their abdomen scaphoid shaped.
70% of human body is composed of water and all the chemical processes in the body take place in water. Water intake must be maintained for development and growth of muscles. Lack of water results in dry flaky skin and parched muscles, lack of enough water in the body is called as dehydration. Intense dehydration results in Scaphoid Abdomen.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
When organs in the stomach dislocate, creating a vacuum in the stomach area, this causes the anterior abdominal wall to be sucked in and resultantly scaphoid abdomen occurs. A hernia is a condition in which organs from one part of the bodyprotrudein another part. In a congenital hernia, the abdomen gets ruptured and contents of abdominal cavity are protruded in the thoracic cavity. This displacement creates a cavity in the stomach. Such disease is seen in babies since birth.
In this condition, duodenum gets blocked. Duodenum is the first part of small intestine, from where intestines start. Duodenum is connected directly to the stomach. Due to blockage, no food passes. When food doesn’t pass it results in the discontinuity of formation of gas in the stomach which results in the scaphoid abdomen. This situation occurs in babies
And makes them vomit on eating anything which causes further complications.
The diaphragm is the sheet of muscle between chest and stomach which aids in the breathing process. When it gets injured due to some accident, tumour or disease then scaphoid abdomen is formed.
High intestinal obstruction (HID)
HID or High Intestinal Obstruction is also a root cause of Scaphoid Abdomen. HID is the severe blockage of intestines which impairs the passage of any intestinal content from the small intestine to lower intestine. HID occurs either as a birth defect or as a result of surgery, hernia or tumours. The obstruction empties the large bowel. This creates a cavity and a concave like the structure of abdominal muscles.
Nervous System is connected with cerebrum and any disorder of nerves may result in Scaphoid Abdomen because nerves carry blood to various parts of the body. Blood being carrier of all nutrients and oxygen in the body when restricted to few parts dye to cerebral diseases then muscles of deprived organs shorten and dry up.
Marasmus is protein energy deficiency which is a severe form of undernourishment and malnutrition especially prevalent in children. This causes a sudden reduction in weight which makes a body very lean, thin and bony. This is mostly found in African countries.